The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.
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The territory of Moshoeshoe I became the kingdom of Lesotho.
What had caused the Mfecane?
Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. It created way for European penetration i.
Shaka created an expansive Zulu state that waged war on neighbouring peoples, causing them to be incorporated into the Zulu state or to flee as refugees. Help us improve this article! The Mfecane also led to large tracts of land being uninhabited. Migrants, Strangers and the Church in Southern Africa. South Africa Table of Contents A combination of local factors–population growth, the depletion of natural resources, and devastating drought and famine–led to revolutionary changes in the political, economic, and social structure of Bantu-speaking communities in southern Africa in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Large centralized states of tens of thousands of people with standing armies of up to 40, men and autocratic leaders emerged where before there had been only small-scale political entities and no chief had had total power. Zwangendaba of the Jele or Gumbi clan son of Nonyanda ka Sguda Jele according to the information given by the original Gumbi clan of Kwazulu Natal and not kaHlatshwayo as stated by other researchers [ citation needed ]a commander of the Ndwandwe army, fled north with Soshangane after his defeat in Overspecific notes are at your disposal.
Many of the Mthethwa leaders formed a confederation with the Zulu clan, under the leadership of Shaka. Kololo imposed their language on the Lozi and the Zulu did the same.
The single event that made the most profound effect on Cquses and Southern Africa in the nineteenth century? Aroundthe Zulu general Mzilikazi of mfeacne Khumalo clan defied Zulu king Shaka, and set up his own kingdom.
Before the effects of the Mfecane is discussed it is causew to look at factors that led to the Mfecane. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were sometimes scarce.
The rise of Shaka who was a great Ngoni and Sotho leader, he believed lf the expansion of the Zulu kingdom. Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article.
The Formation of an African State. It was characterized by severe punishments that caused untold bloodshed and fortune of the Zulu people and other parts of central and EastAfrical begun from the northern Zululand and then to rest of the Bantu area in South Africa.
The Zulu practice was to absorb only the women and young men of a clan or village. Demographic changes occurred as peaceful areas became density populated while unsafe areas became depopulated. The agricultural surpluses and increased population enabled Shaka to raise a standing army of Zulus. The pattern of the Mfecane, in which tribe was set against tribe over an ever-increasing radius, was highly successful in areas weakened by overpopulation and overgrazing.
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British, Boers into the interior of South Africa because of weakened and depopulated areas by Mfecane. Everything you need to know about selling on Stuvia. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.
Causes of the Mfecane
Bantu-speaking farmers had reached the margins of arable land on the edge of the Kalahari Desert in the northwest and in the mountains on fauses southern border of the Highveld, and people settling in the area found their access to water more and more limited.
The death toll has never been satisfactorily determined, but kfecane whole region became nearly depopulated. In the Zulu defeated them, and they fled as refugees across the Mzimvubu River,…. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Olivia Member since 5 year ago 47 documents sold. Fortifying the easily defended hills and expanding his reach with cavalry raids, he fought against his enemies with some success, despite not adopting the Zulu tactics, as many other clans had done.
For instance the Sotho who were living east of the Drakensberg  where invaded by the Mfecans, Khumalo and Ngwaneni who were fleeing from the Mfecane going on in the West of the Drakensberg around A History of Ngamiland, to The Zulus conquered and assimilated smaller clans in casues area.
Most states united to form strong mvecane for security purposes e. Instead of using throwing spears, the Zulus used broad-bladed, stabbing spears known as iklwawhich were deadly in close combat. Portuguese Rule in Central Africa as liberal and oppressive.
Dingiswayo was a mentor to King Shaka. The kingdom of Shaka the Zulu is now an important topic in the history of Southern Africa. There was abandonment of some traditional practices such as circumcision.
Cxuses combination of local factors–population growth, the depletion of natural resources, and devastating drought and famine–led to revolutionary changes in the political, economic, and social structure of Bantu-speaking communities in southern Africa in the first half of the nineteenth century.
They were respectively led by kings Sobhuza of NgwaneZwideand Dingiswayo and were the most powerful ethnic groups.
Causes of the Mfecane – History – Stuvia
The Mfecane had a profound effect on the regions of central and Southern Africa, more so than other event in those regions during the nineteenth century such as the Great Trek  because of the reasons to be discussed below. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Contact our editors with your feedback. For instance the Ndwandwe and Ngwane lived close to each other in the Pongola Valley and as their populations grew there was an increase in demand for cultivable lands.